• Volume 38,Issue 1,2023 Table of Contents
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      2023, 38(1). DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0000

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      2023, 38(1). DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0000

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    • >Invited Review
    • A Brief Review on Special Column of Spine Biomechanics

      2023, 38(1):1-3. DOI: 10.16156/j.1004-7220.2023.01.001

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    • >Expert forum
    • Research Progress on Biomechanics and Mechanobiology ofArticular Cartilage in 2022

      2023, 38(1):4-13. DOI: 10.16156/j.1004-7220.2023.01.002

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      Abstract:As a kind of elastic load-bearing connective tissues on bone surface in dynamic joints, articular cartilage can provide low wear lubrication, shock absorption, load transfer and other supporting functions, and has hierarchical fiber composite structures and excellent mechanical properties. As an avascular and aneural tissue,the degenerated articular cartilage lacks the capability of self-healing after damage. The high incidence of arthritisis still a hot spot in basic and clinical researches. Articular cartilage is a mechanical sensitive tissue, and mechanical environment will affect the development of tissues in different directions. Extensive researches onbiomechanics and mechanobiology of articular cartilage were conducted in 2022. Many studies on morphology, function and mechanical state of cartilage,as well as mechanical state of cartilage under different conditions were reported. Some cartilage-related loading devices were designed at animal, tissue and cell levels. Researches onthe repair of cartilage degeneration and injury under mechanical loads were carried out in vitro and in vivo, and some important repair method and means were obtained. The biomechanical and mechanobiology research on articular cartilage is the basis of arthritis, cartilage defect and repair. The influence of quantitative mechanical under 4 conditions on the repair of articular cartilage injury needs further study in vivo and in vitro

    • The Mechanism of Brain Injury Induced by Rotational Motion

      2023, 38(1):14-29. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0014

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      Abstract:Traumatic brain injury ( TBI ) has caused serious economic and social burdens, but due to its heterogeneity, there is no effective treatment. In TBI with different severity, diffuse axonal injury (DAI) incidenceis high. The investigation on DAI will contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of TBI. In this study, the classification of TBI and the research status of DAI were summarized. The method to judge the severity of TBI and DAI, and animal experimental models and related injury criteria and thresholds were reviewed. The result show that DAI is mainly generated by rotational acceleration and it is related to angular acceleration, angular velocity and duration. Several TBI animal models can induce the pathology of DAI, and inertial rotation models which can produce only rotational acceleration have been developed. However, these models are instantaneous rotation models, and the rotation duration is uncontrollable, thus a longer duration is impossible, and DAI severity under long rotational motion cannot be studied. The study proposes that a new rotation animal model which can control rotation duration should be developed. The development of the animal model and investigation on pathomechanism of the model will contribute to the prevention and treatment of DAI.

    • >Special Column
    • Biomechanical Comparison of Internal Fixation by Traditional and Cortical Bone Trajectory Pedicle Screw

      2023, 38(1):30-36. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0030

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      Abstract:Objective To compare the effects of cortical bone trajectory ( CBT) and traditional trajectory ( TT)pedicle screw internal fixation on the range of motion (ROM) and rod system stress of normal and osteoporotic(OP) spines. Methods The L3-S1 finite element models of normal and OP spines were established. The screwrod system with two kinds of trajectory was used for internal fixation of the L4-5 segment, so as to simulate sixphysiological loads, namely, flexion, extension, left / right bending, left / right rotation. The effects of two internalfixation methods on ROMs and maximum equivalent stress of screws in normal and OP spines were compared.Results For both bone conditions, CBT and TT significantly reduced ROM of the fixed segment (L4-5) and theentire segment of lower lumbar spine ( L3-S1). However, the ROM decline of CBT group was slightly smaller than that of TT group, and their ROMs were similar under flexion and extension, but the ROM differences were significant under lateral bending and axial rotation. In addition, for both the normal and OP spine models, themaximum equivalent stress of screws in CBT group was significantly higher than that in TT group. Compared withTT group, the screw stress of CBT group in normal spine model under flexion and extension, lateral bending,axial rotation was increased by 27% , 268% and 58% , respectively. However, when CBT technique was used at the same time, the OP spine model had a smaller screw stress distribution than the normal spine model.Conclusions Compared with TT technique, CBT technique can achieve higher screw stress under OP conditionand reduce screw stress concentration under normal bone condition. In addition, CBT slightly increases ROMs of each segment, which is conducive to recovery of spinal physiological function after surgery. Lateral bending and axial rotation can produce negative mechanical effects, and these two physiological loads should be avoided.

    • Biomechanical Study on Atlantoaxial Dislocation Combined with Basilar Invagination by Different Posterior Internal Fixation Methods

      2023, 38(1):37-44. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0037

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      Abstract:Objective To investigate biomechanical differences of two posterior occipitocervical internal fixation techniques for treating basilar invagination with atlantoaxial dislocation (BI-AAD). Methods Intra-articular cage + posterior occipital plate+C2 pedicle screw (Cage+C2PS+OP), and intra-articular cage+C1 lateral mass screw+C2PS (Cage+C1LMS+C2PS) models were established based on occipitocervical CT data of the BI-AAD and clinical operation scheme, and the stability of atlantoaxial joint and stress distribution characteristics of C2 endplate and implanted instruments under different motion states were analyzed. Results Compared with the Cage+C1LMS+C2PS model, the atlantoaxial range of motion ( ROM) under flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation in the Cage+C2PS+OP model were reduced by 5. 26% , 33. 33% , 43. 75% , -5. 56% , and stress peak of screw-rod fixation system were reduced by 47. 81% , 60. 90% , 48. 45% , 39. 14% , respectively. Under two internal fixation modes, stresses of C2 endplate and cage were mainly distributed on the compressive side during the motion, and both the screw-bone interface and the caudal side of screw subjected to large loading. Conclusions Two internal fixation methods could provide similar stability. However, the stress concentration of screw-rod system was more obvious and the possibility of screw loosening and fracture was greater under Cage+ C1LMS+C2PS fixation.

    • Biomechanical Study on Contiguous Three-Level Cervical Hybrid Surgery and Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion

      2023, 38(1):45-51. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0045

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      Abstract:Objective To compare the biomechanical effects of contiguous three-level cervical Hybrid surgery[anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) + cervical disc arthroplasty ( CDA)] and three-level ACDF. Methods The finite element model of C1-T1 cervical-thoracic spine was developed based on CT data. Three models were simulated by the implantation of Prestige LP and Zero-P prostheses, including two Hybrid models (AFA, Prestige LP implanted at C3-4 and C5-6 segments and Zero-P implanted at C4-5 segment; FAF, Zero-P implanted at C3-4 and C5-6 segments and Prestige LP implanted at C4-5 segment) and three-level ACDF model(FFF). The changes in range of motion (ROM) of adjacent levels during flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation, the overall ROM, as well as the intradiscal pressure ( IDP) and facet contact force ( FCF) of adjacent levels were compared. Results The ROM in adjacent levels and the overall ROM of the AFA modelwere closer to the intact model, and the maximum increases in the ROM of the adjacent levels for the FAF and FFF models were 15. 0% and 23. 4% , respectively. For AFA, FAF and FFF models, the maximum increases in the maximum IDP of adjacent levels were 19. 0% , 66. 7% , 147. 6% , and the maximum increases in FCF were 17. 4% , 55. 7% , 80. 1% , respectively. Conclusions This study provides biomechanical basis for three-level cervical Hybrid surgery in treating patients with the contiguous three-level cervical degenerative disc disease.

    • Biomechanical Evaluation of Oblique Lateral Interbody Fusion Combined with Different Internal Fixation Methods for Treating Degenerative Lumbar Scoliosis:A Finite Element Analysis

      2023, 38(1):52-58. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0052

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      Abstract:Objective To verify the biomechanical stability of oblique lateral interbody fusion ( OLIF) combinedwith different fixation methods for treating degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) by three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis. Methods The L1-S1 3D finite element DLS model ( Model 1) was established, and then the OLIF (L2-5) at 3 contiguous levels of fusion and its combination with different internal fixation methods were simulated, namely, stand-alone OLIF model ( Model 2), vertebral screw fixation model ( Model 3), unilateral pedicle screw fixation model (Model 4) and bilateral pedicle screw fixation model (Model 5) were established,respectively. Under upright, flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation states, range of motion (ROM) of fusion segments, as well as cage stress, internal fixation stress, and stress distribution were recorded and analyzed. Results Under six motion states, the overall ROM of fusion segments in Models 2-5 was smaller than that of Model 1. Compared with Model 1, the overall ROM reduction of Model 3 and Model 4 was larger than that of Model 2 and smaller than that of Model 5. Under flexion and extension, the overall ROM reduction of Model 4 and Model 5 was basically equal. Under left and right lateral bending, the overall ROM reduction of Model 3 and Model 5 was basically equal. Under all motion states, the peak stress of Model 3 and Model 4 fusion cage was larger than that of Model 5 and smaller than that of Model 2. The peak stresses of L2-3, L3-4 and L4-5 fusion cages in Model 3 increased by 5. 52% , 10. 96% and 7. 99% respectively compared with Model 5 under left lateral bending, and the peak stresses of L2-3, L3-4 and L4-5 fusion cages in Model 4 increased by 8. 70% , 7. 00% and 6. 99% respectively under flexion. Under all motion states, the peak stress of screw rod in Model 5 was smaller than that of Model 3 and Model 4, and the peak stresses of screw rod in Models 3-5 were the smallest in upright state. Conclusions The OLIF with unilateral pedicle screw fixation or vertebral screw fixation can provide favorable biomechanical stability of the fusion segment. The results provide some references for clinical application of OLIF technology in the treatment of DLS.

    • The Action Effect of Two Kinds of Lumbar Massage Obliquity Manipulation with Different Lumbar Degeneration Degrees: A Comparative Study

      2023, 38(1):59-64. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0059

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      Abstract:Objective To compare the action effect of traditional and modified lumbar massage obliquity manipulation with different degrees of lumbar degeneration. Methods The biomechanical model of quality-spring-damping system lumbar spine was established and massage forces from professional massage doctors were collected. The force was used as input of the model, and lumbar degeneration was simulated by increasing elastic coefficient of the spring and damping coefficient of the damping in the model. By using MATLAB/ Simulink simulation technology, the effects of massage obliquity manipulation ( the maximum relative displacement and maximum acceleration) with different degrees of lumbar degeneration were obtained for comparative analysis.Results When the lumbar spine was degenerative, the maximum relative displacement and maximum acceleration of each segment were obtained under two manipulations. With the increase of lumbar degenerationdegree, the maximum relative displacement and maximum acceleration of each segment under two manipulations showed a downward trend, and the attenuation rate of the maximum relative displacement and maximum acceleration of each segment under two manipulations was obtained. Conclusions When degenerative changes in the spine do not occur, the effectiveness of traditional lumbar massage obliquity manipulation is slightly better than that of modified lumbar massage obliquity manipulation, but the safety of modified lumbar massage obliquity manipulation is obviously better than that of the traditional lumbar massage obliquity manipulation, so the modified lumbar massage obliquity manipulation should be used. With the aggravation of lumbar degeneration, the action effects of two manipulations are attenuated in a power function. The attenuation rate of effectiveness of modified lumbar massage obliquity manipulation is significantly faster than that of traditional lumbar massage obliquity manipulation, indicating that the modified lumbar massage obliquity manipulation should not be used in the case of lumbar degeneration.

    • Kinematic and Dynamic Study on Traditional Chinese Cervical Manipulation

      2023, 38(1):65-70. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0065

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      Abstract:Objective To simultaneously collect and analyze the kinematic and dynamic parameters for two techniques of traditional Chinese cervical manipulation ( TCCM), and quantitatively describe its biomechanical characteristics. Methods A senior practitioner completed the TCCM (positioning and directional rotation pulling, lateral flexion, respectively) on 10 healthy subjects, and the fluorescent marker balls were pasted on the operator to capture manipulation movements. The dynamic parameters and the surface electromyography ( sEMG) signals were collected by pressure-sensitive gloves and wireless sEMG acquisition system. Results The upper arm muscle was the main force muscle during TCCM, and biceps brachii had the highest contribution rate. The range of motion (ROM), speed, pulling force, and time during cervical spine positioning and directional rotation pulling were all greater than those during cervical spine lateral flexion. The integrate electromyography ( iEMG) and root mean square (RMS) for each muscle of the operator during cervical spine positioning and directional rotation pulling were higher than those during cervical spine lateral flexion. Conclusions The overall ROM, three-dimensional (3D) motion angle, load intensity and time during CCTM have the characteristics of high speed, low amplitude and strong force, reflecting the biomechanical characteristics of ‘ cunjin ’ ( one-inch punch ) in traditional Chinese medicine. This study provides references for further standardizing manual teaching and training and improving clinical safety.

    • Differences in Neck Injuries of Dummy Models at Different Backrest Angles under Horizontal Negative Acceleration

      2023, 38(1):71-76. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0071

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      Abstract:Objective Based on the dummy model, to study the relationship between different backrest angles and neck injuries under the effect of horizontal negative acceleration (-Gx ). Methods The dummy model was fixed on the base of the acceleration platform facing the orbital direction, and the backrest angle was set at 17°, 22°, 30°, respectively. Each experimental group performed 10 repeated tests according to the same acceleration curve, differences between the upper and lower acceleration of the cervical spine under the same -Gx conditions were compared, and the neck injury criteria (NIC) was calculated and compared through curve fitting. Results The time-acceleration curves of the upper and lower cervical spine in the anteroposterior and vertical directions had the same shape with peak differences. In the anteroposterior direction (X-axis), the acceleration peak of the 22° backrest angle experimental group was slightly higher than that of 17° and 30° backrest angle experimental groups, but in the vertical direction (Z-axis), the acceleration peak of the 22° backrest experimental group was lower than that of 17° and 30° backrest angle experimental groups. In the anteroposterior and vertical directions, the NICmax measured by 22° backrest angle experimental group was relatively smaller, NICmax measured by 30°backrest angle experimental group was in the middle, and NICmax measured by 30° backrest angle experimental group was relatively larger. Conclusions There was a nonlinear relationship between the backrest angle and theneck injury. The neck injury of the dummy model with the backrest angle of 22° was smallest under the effect of -Gx in this experiment.

    • Dynamic Response and Injury Prediction for Lumbar Vertebrae of Pilots with Spondylolysis under Persistent Overload

      2023, 38(1):77-83. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0077

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      Abstract:Objective Based on construction and verification of the lumbar finite element model, the simulation calculation and injury prediction on dynamic response of normal lumbar model and L5 unilateral and bilateral spondylolysis models of the pilot were carried out, so as to explore the influence of persistent flight overload on normal and spondylolysis lumbar vertebrae of the pilot. Methods The precise finite element model of lumbavertebrae was established using reverse engineering software and computer-aided engineering (CAE) technology based on CT images. The validity of the lumbar vertebrae model was verified by static and dynamic in vitro experiments. The biomechanical simulation analysis on normal and spondylolysis lumbar vertebrae of the pilotunder persistent overload was carried out, and the spinal injury was predicted and analyzed by dynamic response index (DRI) injury evaluation and prediction method. Results The maximum isthmus stress of L5 vertebra in unilateral and bilateral spondylolysis models were 105. 29 MPa and 126. 32 MPa, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in normal model. The L4-5 and L5-S1 intervertebral discs of the spondylolysis model were more prone to premature degenerative changes than those of normal model. Combined with DRI spinal injury prediction method, the probability of spinal injury in normal lumbar vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae with L5 unilateral and bilateral spondylolysis were 0. 001 4% , 2. 26% and 3. 21% , respectively, and the probability of spinal injury was significantly increased after the occurrence of spondylolysis. Conclusions The spondylolysis increases the load of lumbar isthmus under flight overload. The results provide more accurate data support for the formulation of training programs and the development of protective devices to ensure flight safety

    • >Original Articles
    • Stress Distributions Affected by Different Filling Blocks in Medial Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy

      2023, 38(1):84-89. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0084

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      Abstract:Objective To analyze the influence from material and size of the filling block on stress distributions of the tibial osteotomy model. Methods The filling blocks with three different materials (iliac bone, cancellous bone and polyetheretherketone (PEEK)) and five different sizes were established and implanted to the tibial osteotomy models, respectively. The mechanical loads were applied on the model, the stress distribution and edge displacement of the model were analyzed. Results For three kinds of materials, the stress at proximal end of the tibia and the plate, as well as edge displacement in the model implanted with filling block by iliac bone material were lower than those of the cancellous bone and PEEK, but the filling block by iliac bone material had the highest stress. When the filling blocks with different sizes were implanted in osteotomy space, the stress distribution on each part of the tibial osteotomy and edge displacement were different. Especially when the width of the filling block was reduced from 30 mm to 10 mm, the peak stress of the proximal tibia, steel plate and filling block was increased by 49. 3% , 92. 7% and 54. 4% on average. Conclusions Different filling block parameters will affect the stress distribution in different parts of the tibial osteotomy. The research results provide the theoretical basis for parameter selection of the tibial osteotomy filling block in clinic.

    • Effects from Extramedullary Design of Femoral Stem on Hip Contact Force: A Musculoskeletal Multi-Body Dynamic Study

      2023, 38(1):90-96. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0090

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      Abstract:Objective To investigate the effects of design parameters such as neck-shaft angle, femoral offset and anteversion angle of total hip arthroplasty ( THA) prosthesis on contact forces of the hip. Methods A musculoskeletal multi-body dynamic model of THA was established based on AnyBody software. The effects of single or multiple factors on hip contact force were studied when the neck-shaft angle, eccentricity and anteversion angle varied within ±10°, ±20 mm and ±10°, respectively. Results The maximum hip contact force increased by 26. 08% when femoral offset was reduced by 20 mm. The maximum hip contact force increased by 5. 99% when the neck-shaft angle increased by 10°. When the anteversion angle increased by 10°, the hip contact force decreased at 0% -24% of gait cycle, with the peak decreasing by 19. 16% . However, the hip contact force was significantly increased at 38% -70% of gait cycle, with the peak increasing by 67. 78% . Conclusions In extramedullary design of the femoral stem, based on reconstruction of the patient’s anatomical parameters, the offset of the femoral stem can be appropriately increased, and the neck-shaft angle and anteversion angle can bereduced to avoid increasing forces on the hip.

    • The Wear on a Novel Motion Mode Hinged Knee Prosthesis: A Finite Element Analysis

      2023, 38(1):97-103. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0097

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      Abstract:Objective To perform finite element analysis on a novel motion mode hinged knee prosthesis, and investigate the method of wear simulation on hinged prosthesis and the influence of motion mode on wear of the prosthesis. Methods Based on the finite element model of contact stress on spherical axis prosthesis, the finite element model of wear was established according to Archard wear theory. The kinematics data during different motions were input as loading condition to simulate mechanical environment of the knee arthroplasty in physiological activities. The wear results of spherical axis prosthesis were studied. Results For tibial insert, the average and maximum contact stresses during upstairs and downstairs climbing were higher than those during walking, and the cumulative wear volume during upstairs climbing was larger than that during downstairs climbing and walking. The wear mainly occurred on lower surface of tibial insert during all 3 motions. For rotating bushing, there was only a short period of contact and wear during walking, and the cumulative wear was 0. 19 mm3. Conclusions The spherical axis motion of hinged knee prosthesis can improve the mechanical environment of knee, reduce the wear of rotating bushing, and prolong the prosthesis survival. The finite element simulation can predict the wear of hinged prosthesis effectively, and provide the theoretical basis for design and improvement of the prosthesis.

    • Anterolateral or Posteromedial Plate-Assisted Intramedullary Nailing for Fixation of Proximal Third Tibia Fractures: A Biomechanical Study

      2023, 38(1):104-109. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0104

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      Abstract:Objective To study the stability of plate-assisted intramedullary nailing for fixing proximal third tibiafractures, compare and observe biomechanical characteristics of anterolateral or posteromedial plate-assisted intramedullary nailing after fixation of proximal third tibia fractures. Methods Eight artificial tibia of 4th-generation sawbones were divided into two groups based on location of the assisted plate, namely, anterolateral plate group and posteromedial plate group, with 4 specimens in each group. Each two locking bolts were fixed to theintramedullary nail proximally and distally, and each three bicortical screws were fixed to the plate proximally and distally. The specimens were osteotomized with a 10-mm defect which located 0. 5 cm to the proximal locking bolt of intramedullary nail or 5-6 cm distally to the knee joint line, in order to simulate an AO/ OTA 41-A2 type proximal third tibia fracture after fixation of intramedullary nail. After osteotomy was finished, axial compression test, threepoint bending test, cyclic loading and overstress test were conducted by mechanical testing machine. The results of axial stiffness and three-point stiffness between two groups were compared and analyzed. Results Axial compression test showed that the average axial stiffness in posteromedial plate group was lower than that in anterolateral plate group, but no significantly statistical differences were found between the two groups. Threepoint bending test showed that the average bending stiffness in posteromedial plate group was significantly higher than that in anterolateral plate group when stimulating either varus stress (plate located at pressure side of the fracture, t = 3. 679, P<0. 05) or valgus stress (plate located at tension side of the fracture, t = 8. 975, P<0. 05). Conclusions Plate-assisted intramedullary nailing for fixation of proximal third tibia fractures can minimize the angulation malalignment, improve the stability of nailed proximal tibial fragment and allow the early weight bearing. Both anterolateral and posteromedial plate-assisted intramedullary nail can provide satisfactory axial stability for proximal third tibia fractures, while posteromedial plate-assisted intramedullary nail shows better bending stability than anterolateral plate in countering varus or valgus stress deformity. This study provides an essential basis for clinical decision making about plate-assisted intramedullary nailing for fixing proximal third tibia fractures.

    • Biomechanical Study on Different fixation Methods of Cannulated Screws for Posterior Malleolus Fracture

      2023, 38(1):110-115. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0110

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      Abstract:Objective To study biomechanical effects of cannulated screws at different fixation angles on posterior malleolus fracture based on finite element method, so as to determine the best fixation method of cannulatedscrew. Methods The finite element model of ankle joint, including tibia, fibula, astragalus, corresponding cartilage and ligaments was reconstructed using CT images, and 1 / 2 posterior malleolus fracture model was established on the basis of verifying its validity. The biomechanical effects of cannulated screw fixation on posterior malleolus fracture fixation model were analyzed. Results Compared with 0°,5°,10°,20° fixation model, the 15° fixation model had the smallest displacement. The screw stress of 15° fixation model was lower than that of 5°, 10°, 20° fixation model, and higher than that of 0° fixation model. But when the screw fixation angle was 0°, the peak contact pressure of ankle joint was much larger than that of normal ankle joint, which was easy to cause traumatic osteoarthritis. Conclusions Cannulated screw is safe and effective for treating posterior malleolus fracture which is less than 1 / 2 fragment size. The displacement and stress of the model are different at different fixation angles of screws. When the fixation angle of screw is 15°, the biomechanical stability is the best, which can be used to guide clinical operation.

    • Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation of Carotid Plaque

      2023, 38(1):116-122. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0116

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      Abstract:Objective To propose a two-way fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method based on real patients with carotid artery stenosis, and analyze the hemodynamic parameters of carotid plaques with different types at the lesion as well as deformation and stress changes of the plaque itself. Methods Three-dimensional ( 3D) modeling was performed based on computed tomography angiography ( CTA) data of patients with moderate carotid artery stenosis. The carotid artery wall model and plaque model were separated, and transient fluidstructure coupling calculation was performed. The situation from early stage of carotid atherosclerosis to formation of the plaque was simulated. The plaque types were divided into thickened plaques, lipid plaques, mixed plaques and calcified plaques, among which thickened plaques were regarded as non-plaque conditions for representing the thickening of vascular intima-media. The stenotic carotid arteries with different plaque types were compared and analyzed. Results The plaques with different types had little effect on the overall blood flow, but the wall shear stress of lipid plaques at the lesion was lower than that of other plaques. With thickened plaques as a control, concurrence of the plaque would inhibit artery expansion, and lipid plaques were the most obvious. Calcified plaques had the highest average plaque structure stress, while lipid plaques had the lowest average plaque structure stress. Conclusions The method proposed in this study can analyze fluid area and solid area at the same time. The results can contribute to better understanding the influence of different plaque types on carotid artery diseases.

    • Analysis on Motion Characteristics of Red Blood Cells in Capillaries

      2023, 38(1):123-128. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0123

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      Abstract:Objective To study the motion and deformation of red blood cells ( RBCs) with different mechanical properties in capillaries,and make analysis on the associated hemorheological parameters. Methods The RBC was modeled as a hyper elastic membrane using Skalak model. The fluid was solved using a two-order difference scheme with the membrane mechanics treated by the immersed method. The pathological viscosity ratio λ= 5 was considered. Results The steady deformation of RBCs with different membrane stiffness in the capillary was obtained. With membrane stiffness increasing, the cell transformed from axisymmetric shapes to non-axisymmetric shapes. With capillary number increasing, the deformability of RBCs weakened and the flow resistance increased. Conclusions With stiffening of cell membrane, the non-axisymmetric cell shape appears and the flow resistance increases. Therefore, in diseases involved stiffening RBCs, the stiffened RBCs can cause the blockage of capillaries and hypoxia in surrounding tissues.

    • Effects of Left Ventricular Assist and Aortic Graft Angle on Aortic Valve: A Hemodynamic Study

      2023, 38(1):129-134. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0129

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      Abstract:Objective To investigate the effect of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and aortic graft angle on hemodynamics of aortic valve. Methods Three models of aorta and aortic valve with 45°, 60° and 90° anastomosis angles between LVAD and aorta were constructed, and an in vitro pulsating table was built for in vitro experiments. Using particle image velocimetry (PIV) system, three moments in the cardiac cycle ( T1 systolic peak, T rapid closure, T3 diastolic peak), were selected to study the hemodynamic state of aortic valve. Results Velocity vector, vorticity and viscous shear stress were used to evaluate the effect of LVAD anastomosis angle on hemodynamics of aortic valve. During the period of rapid valve closure, with the increase of graft angle, the blood flow velocity near the valve wall, the average vorticity and the maximum viscous shear stress all increased. Conclusions When the graft angle is lower, the impact velocity of blood on the valve is smaller, and the shear force on the valve decreases, so that the valve is in a better hemodynamic environment. This study provides references for the selection of anastomotic angles in clinical operations.

    • Effects of Coating Method on Fabrication Quality of Flexible Silicone Blood Vessels

      2023, 38(1):135-141. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0135

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      Abstract:Objective To investigate the effect of different coating methods on production quality of complex and flexible silicone vascular replicas. Methods Based on models of anterior communicating artery aneurysms, several patient-specific models were made by using spray-coating method and brush-spin-coating method respectively, and two methods for making the same vascular structure were quantitatively compared in terms of thickness growth, circumferential uniformity and light transmittance. Results Brush-spin-coating method was better than spray-coating method in the thickness control and coating uniformity for fabrication of vessels with large curvature, variable diameter and straight tube, and the model had preferably light transmittance and surface smoothness. The relative deviation of thickness by brush-spin-coating method was decreased by 8. 9% , 10. 8% and 16. 9% respectively compared with spray-coating method. Conclusions At present stage, the brush-spincoating method has the advantage of thickness uniformity and light transmittance over the spray-coating method in making silicone phantoms, and it has promising application prospects in fluid mechanics field of in vitro experiment on large vessels.

    • Preparation and Performance of Three-Dimensional Silk FibroinScaffolds with Different Matrix Stiffness

      2023, 38(1):142-148. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0142

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      Abstract:Objective After hydrogen bonding between collagen ( COL) and silk fibroin ( SF ) at different concentrations, a composite scaffold with adjustable stiffness was prepared by combining with gel system, and its physical and chemical properties were characterized. Methods SF with different qualities was dissolved in sodium alginate (SA) solution, then COL solution at different concentration and calcium carbonate ( CaCO3 ) powder were added. The hydrogels of SC1, SC2, and SC3 groups were obtained by taking out the mixed solution and adding some gluconic acid lactone ( GDL) powder, and different SF scaffolds were obtained after freeze drying. Results The SF scaffolds with adjustable stiffness were successfully prepared. The compression moduli of SC1, SC2, and SC3 groups were (17. 31±2. 73), (24. 12±1. 81), (32. 54±1. 81) kPa, respectively. The innerstructure of the scaffolds was observed. From SC1 group to SC3 group, pores of the scaffolds were smaller and fewer, and hydrophilicity of the materials become better and better. Conclusions Three-dimensional ( 3D) porous scaffolds with different matrix stiffness can be prepared by changing the concentration of SF and COL solution. The concentration of SF and COL is proportional to the compression modulus, water absorption, water retention and swelling rate of SF scaffolds, while inversely proportional to porosity. The findings of this study are expected to provide theoretical guidance for construction of scaffolds with appropriate matrix stiffness for inducing osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    • Effects of Cyclic Strain on Neural Differentiation of Rat Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

      2023, 38(1):149-155. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0149

      Abstract (66) HTML (0) PDF 8.67 M (350) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Objective To study the mechanical effects of cyclic strain on neural differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). Methods The rBMSCs were subjected to cyclic strain for 24 hours andthen cultured for 5 days. The expression of neural markers and the phosphorylation of relative signaling pathway proteins were evaluated. The stress distribution on cell surface was analyzed by finite element method. The differentially expressed genes induced by strain were identified by RNA sequencing analysis. Results The 0. 5 Hz strain with 5% magnitude could significantly induce higher expression of neural markers and elevated phosphorylation level of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), protein kinase B (AKT) and mammalian target of rapamycin ( mTOR). KEGG pathway analysis showed that the focal adhesion and ECM-receptor interaction were significantly enriched under cyclic strain. Conclusions Cyclic strain could change the interaction of cells with the extracellular matrix ( ECM) and enhance the AKT/ mTOR and ERK pathway, finally promote rBMSC neural differentiation. Knowledge about the impact of mechanical stimulation on BMSC neural differentiation is expected to improve the efficiency of stem cell differentiation, shed light on device design for tissue engineering, and promote clinical application of mesenchymal stem cells in neural issue repair and regeneration.

    • Pathologically Elevated-Cyclic Stretch Suppressed Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Mitochondrial Biogenesis by Down-regulating PGC1α Expression

      2023, 38(1):156-163. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0156

      Abstract (96) HTML (0) PDF 1.45 M (302) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Objective To investigate the effect of pathologically elevated-cyclic stretch induced by hypertension on mitochondrial biogenesis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and the role of PGC1α in this process. Methods The Flexcell-5000T stretch loading system in vitro was applied to VSMCs with a frequency of 1. 25 Hz and an amplitude of 5% or 15% to simulate the mechanical environment under normal physiological or hypertensive pathological conditions respectively. Western blotting and qPCR were used to detect the expression of PGC1α, citrate synthase and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in VSMCs under normal physiological or hypertensive pathological conditions. VSMCs were treated with PGC1α specific activator ZLN005 to promote PGC1α expression or specific interfering fragment siRNA to inhibit PGC1α expression in order to detect the effect on citrate synthase and mtDNA copy number. Results Compared with 5% physiological cyclic stretch, 15% pathologically elevated-cyclic stretch significantly suppressed the expression of PGC1α, citrate synthase and mtDNA copy number in VSMCs. Compared with control group, the protein expression of PGC1α was significantly decreased and increased respectively. When VSMCs transfected with PGC1α siRNA or incubated PGC1α activator ZLN005, the expression of citrate synthase and mtDNA copy number were also significantly downregulated and up-regulated in VSMCs accordingly. Under physiological cyclic stretch conditions, the protein level of PGC1α was significantly down-regulated by PGC1α siRNA, which also significantly down-regulated citrate synthase expression and mtDNA copy number. The protein expression of PGC1α was significantly up-regulated by ZLN005, which also enhanced the expression of citrate synthase and mtDNA copy number. Conclusions The pathological cyclic stretch induced by hypertension significantly down-regulated the expression of citrate synthase and mtDNA copy number via suppressing the expression of PGC1α, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction of VSMCs. PGC1α may be a potential therapeutic target molecule to alleviate the progression of hypertension.

    • Development of Shoelace Tensile Test System Based on MicroSensors and Reliability Study

      2023, 38(1):164-169. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0164

      Abstract (53) HTML (0) PDF 2.54 M (388) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Objective To design and verify the reliability of a shoelace tensile test system. Methods Incremental loads of 0-196 N were applied to three tension sensors, each load was repeated nine times, with the load removed and interval of 30 s during the repeated tests. Then output voltage of the sensors under each load was collected. Linear regression analysis was used to explore linear relationship between the collected voltage signal and the incremental load. Accuracy, precision and consistency intervals were used to verify consistency of the measured values with the true load. Bland-Altman analysis and intra-group correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis were used to verify the repeatability and reliability of the tensile sensor. Results There was a significant linear correlation between output voltage signal of the sensors and the load (P< 0. 000 1, R2= 0. 999 9), and ICC of three sensors was above 0. 999 (P<0. 000 1). The mean values of the coefficients of variation of the measured values for three tensile sensors under different loads were 0. 003 8, 0. 002 2 and 0. 003 5, respectively. Conclusions The shoelace tensile test system has high reliability and can be used for real-time acquisition of shoelace tension.

    • Age-Related Changes of Biomechanical Properties for Limb Bones in Male Rats

      2023, 38(1):170-175. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0170

      Abstract (410) HTML (0) PDF 3.00 M (244) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Objective To investigate the age-related changes of biomechanical properties for humerus, femur and tibia in male rats and their application values in age estimation. Methods According to different weeks of age, 90 healthy male SD rats were divided into 2, 4, 6, 8, 17, 26, 52, 78 and 104-week groups with 10 rats in eachgroup. After the rats were executed by excessive anesthesia, humerus, femur, and tibia were separated and the attached soft tissues were removed. The length of the above-mentioned bones and the diameter of the middle section (compression site) were measured with vernier caliper, and the three-point bending test was conducted with electronic universal material testing machine to detect the ultimate load and displacement under ultimate load. Results There were significant differences in the ultimate load of humerus, femur and tibia among male rats in different age groups (P<0. 05). With the increase of week age, the ultimate loads of the humerus, femur and tibia increased first and then decreased, and reached the peak value in 52-week age group, showing a strong positive correlation with week age before 52 weeks ( r = 0. 884,0. 933,0. 929, P<0. 05). There was no significant difference in humerus and tibia. The displacement of femur under ultimate load was weakly positively correlated with week age (R= 0. 406,P<0. 05). The age prediction accuracy for automatic linear modeling of ultimate load for humerus, femur, tibia and three above-mentioned bones in rats before 52-week age was 78. 2% , 86. 8% , 84. 1% and 88. 3% , respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between the length of humerus, femur and tibia and the ultimate load (R= 0. 904, 0. 897, 0. 814, P<0. 05). The diameters of humerus, femur and tibia were strongly positively correlated with the ultimate load (R = 0. 759, 0. 814 and 0. 745, P<0. 05). Conclusions The ultimate loads of humerus, femur and tibia in male rats increased first and then decreased with age, and were positively correlated with age before 52 weeks, which could be used for age inference. The highest accuracy of age estimation was ultimate loads of three bones, followed by femur. The length/ middle diameter of humerus, femur and tibia were strongly positively correlated with the ultimate load.

    • Analysis on Characteristics of Plantar Pressure and Balance in Patients with Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain

      2023, 38(1):176-181. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0176

      Abstract (356) HTML (0) PDF 1.20 M (265) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Objective To explore the difference of balance ability between patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain ( CNLBP) and healthy individuals, and the correlation between patients’ pain symptoms, lumbar flexibility, abdominal muscle endurance, overall function, quality of life and fear of avoidance with balance ability, so as to guide clinical rehabilitation evaluation. Methods A total of 34 patients with CNLBP were selected as the experimental group, and 34 healthy volunteers without history of low back pain were selected as control group. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to collect the ratio of forefoot to hindfoot pressure, pathlength ( L) of plantar center of pressure ( COP), displacement length in anteroposterior direction ( LAP ), displacement length in mediolateral direction (LML ), mean velocity (v), displacement velocity in anteroposterior direction (vAP ), displacement velocity in mediolateral direction (V-ML) and elliptical swing area (S). In addition,the experimental group was assessed by the visual analogue scale (VAS), the finger floor distance (FFD), the number of sit-ups in 1 minute, the Oswestry disability index (ODI), the 36-item short form survey (SF-36) and the fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FABQ), and correlated with plantar pressure parameters. Results All plantar pressure parameters were significantly different between the two groups ( P < 0. 05). The the ratio of forefoot to hindfoot pressure in experimental group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0. 05), and the parameters L, LAP , LML , v, vAP , vML and S were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0. 05). With eyes open or closed, the VAS score of experimental group was positively correlated with L, LAP , LML(P<0. 05), and FFD and FABQ scores were positively correlated with L and LML , respectively (P< 0. 05). With eyes open, ODI was positively correlated with L, LAP and LML (P< 0. 05), and SF-36 score was negatively correlated with L and LML(P<0. 05). With eyes closed, the number of 1-min sit-ups was negatively correlated with LAP and S (P<0. 05), ODI was positively correlated with L and LML(P<0. 05), and the SF-36 score was negatively correlated with L (P<0. 05). Conclusions The static balance ability of patients with CNLBP is decreased, and it is correlated with pain symptoms, lumbar function, quality of life and psychological status. The result can provide references for the assessment of functional activities.

    • Effects of Rehabilitation Training Combined with Acupuncture on Upper Limb Function of Stroke Patients Based on Kinect

      2023, 38(1):182-188. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0182

      Abstract (441) HTML (0) PDF 2.21 M (248) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Objective To investigate the effect of rehabilitation training combined with acupuncture ( RTA) on upper limb function of stroke patients by Kinect. Methods Stroke patients with upper limb dysfunction werrandomly divided into control group (rehabilitation training) and treatment group ( RTA), with 15 cases in each group. The modified Barthel Index ( MBI), Fugl Meyer assessment ( FMA), and Wolf motor function test (WMFT) were compared between two groups before and after treatment. The changes in motor time ( MT), motor unit number (MUN), index of curvature (IC), elbow flexion angle (EFA), shoulder flexion angle (SFA),and shoulder adduction angle ( SAA) during three actions, namely, placing forearm on the table, extending elbow and drinking water, were evaluated by Kinect and then compared between two groups before and after treatment. Results After 6 weeks of intervention, the scores of MBI, FMA, WMFT and elbow extension in treatment group were higher than those in control group (P<0. 05). The scores of MBI, FMA, WMFT and three actions after treatment were higher than those before treatment (P<0. 05). For three actions, the improvement of MT, MUN, IC, EFA, SFA, and SAA in treatment group were better than those in control group ( P< 0. 05). Compared with pre-treatment, for the action of forearm placement on the table and elbow extension, both treatment group and control group showed an increase in EFA (P<0. 05), and a decrease in MT, MUN, IC, SFA and SA (P<0. 05). For the action of drinking water, both treatment group and control group showed an increase in EFA and SAA (P< 0. 05), and a decrease in MT, MUN, IC and SAA ( P< 0. 05). Conclusions RTA can improve the upper limb function of stroke patients. Kinect can accurately reflect the changes in upper limb function of stroke patients, and it is suitable for clinical work.

    • >Review Articles
    • Research Progress of the Effect of Microgravity on Cellular Senescence

      2023, 38(1):189-194. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0189

      Abstract (456) HTML (0) PDF 1.48 M (321) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Microgravity is a typical feature of the space. A large number of space flights and foundation simulation experiments have shown that cells show typical biological characteristics of aging, such as reduced cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest under microgravity or simulated microgravity. However, the molecular mechanism by which microgravity or simulated microgravity affects cellular senescence is not well understood. Understanding the mechanism controlling cellular senescence induced by microgravity environment is helpful for exploring anti-aging strategies and targeted interventions in space. In recent years, domestic and foreign scholars have carried out a number of researches and explorations on the effect of microgravity and simulated microgravity on cellular senescence as well as the related mechanisms. In this review, the latest research progress of this filed was summarized.

    • Biomechanical Characteristics of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

      2023, 38(1):195-201. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0195

      Abstract (76) HTML (0) PDF 990.58 K (426) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a common chronic interstitial fibrotic disease. During the fibrosis process, myofibroblasts are abnormally activated, collagen is deposited in large quantities and the biomechanical characteristics of lung tissue are significantly altered. In this paper, a systematic review about the changes in lung tissues, cellular biomechanical properties and biomechanical signals during the process of IPF was presented, and the in vitro reproduction of biomechanical features and therapeutic strategies for targeting biomechanics was summarized, so as to provide references for clinical prevention and treatment of IPF.

    • Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Endurance Performance of Lower Limbs:A Systematic Review

      2023, 38(1):202-208. DOI: 10.3871/j.1004-7220.2023.01.0202

      Abstract (169) HTML (0) PDF 2.46 M (289) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Sports fatigue of the lower limbs is one of the important factors affecting sports performance. How to improve the anti-fatigue ability of the lower limbs during endurance exercise is the focus of the research field of human sports biomechanics. This study systematically reviewed the relevant literature on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) intervention on lower limb endurance performance, summarized the effect of tDCS on lower limb endurance performance, and analyzed the influencing factors and potential mechanisms. The results showed that: tDCS intervention has a significant effect on the endurance performance of the whole lower limbs, but there is no unified conclusion on the effect on the endurance performance of the knee joint. The researchers deem that tDCS can increase the excitability of the primary motor cortex and reduce the activation of the supplementary motor area and the premotor area to producing a lower rating of perceived exertion, but cannot affect the perception of exercise-induced pain, and stimulation protocols varied across studies, which may be partly responsible. This study can provide a theoretical basis for exploring the central mechanism of tDCS to improve endurance performance, formulating rehabilitation and sports training programsfor different groups of people, and developing new stimulation equipment to enhance the human body’s antifatigue ability.

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