Abstract:Journal of Medical Biomechanics was founded in 1986. As a technical periodical, the journal aims at reflecting the latest scientific and clinical achievement and progress in the field of biomechanics, and promoting academic exchange of biomechanics both in China and abroad. By June 2016, the journal has officially published a total of 31 volumes and 124 issues, and great progress has been achieved in its publishing quality and academic influence. In this article, the 30-year development of the journal is reviewed, and future work is prospected in the aspect of improving quality, digitalization and internationalization of the journal.
Abstract:The International Symposium on Ligaments and Tendons (ISL&T) was inaugurated in 2000 in Orlando, Florida, USA. The primary purpose of the ISL&T was to call attention to the importance of ligament and tendon (L&T) research and to bring together bioengineers, biologists, and clinician-scientists in a forum where the most current research findings could be shared, critiqued and discussed. In each symposium since 2000, there have been a number of stimulating, thought-provoking discussions on current hot topics and future challenges. The ISL&T has taken place for 15 years now, and as a result, the L&T field has significantly expanded in quantity while the quality of research has also been greatly improved. In commemoration of the 30th anniversary of the Journal of Medical Biomechanics, this article will highlight some of the major advances in L&T research over the past three decades. Topics to be covered include tissue mechanics, mechanobiology, injury and healing mechanisms, and tissue repair and regeneration.
Abstract:Cells in the body are exposed to physiological and pathophysiological stimuli that encompass both chemical and mechanical factors. It is important to understand how these factors modulate functions at cellular and organ levels. Compared to the large amount of information on cellular or organ responses to chemical factors, there is a paucity of knowledge on the effects of mechanical factors. Recent advances of fluorescence proteins and microscopy make it a very useful tool for elucidating the mechanotransduction processes; the state-of-the-art technologies for live-cell imaging of signaling is particularly valuable for investigating the spatial and temporal aspects of molecular mechanisms in mechanobiology. This review will cover the basic knowledge of fluorescence proteins and their application for biological research. In particular, the development and characterization of biosensors based on fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) will be discussed. Genetically encoded FRET biosensors, which allows the imaging and quantification of tempo-spatial activation of molecules, will be introduced to demonstrate how the initiation and transmission of biochemical signals in response to local mechanical stimulation can be visualized in live cells. Specific emphasis will be on the elucidation of molecule hierarchy of signaling transduction in live cells upon the mechanical stimulation.
Abstract:Blood vessels are often subjected to axial torsion (or twist) due to body movement or surgery. However, there are few studies on blood vessel under twist. This review first summarizes the clinical observation on the twist of blood vessels and then presents what we know about the mechanical behaviors of blood vessel under twist, including the constitutive models. The state of art researches on the remodeling of blood vessels under twist via ex vivo organ culture, in vivo animal experiments, and mathematical model simulations are further discussed. It is our hope that this review will draw attention for further in-depth studies on the behavior and remodeling of blood vessels under twist.
Abstract:As one of the major branches in biomechanics, cellular and molecular biomechanics have made much progress in mechano-biological and mechano-chemical coupling in the past decades. Cells sense various in vivo mechanical stimuli, which initiate downstream signaling via mechanosensitive proteins to balance external forces. It is required to understand what mechanical features of distinct cells are and how external forces are transduced to biochemical signals. Multi-scale integration from cellular, subcellular, to molecular level in a cell promotes the understanding of mechanosensation, mechanotransmission, mechanotransduction, and mechanoepigenetics. In this review, the progress update in cellular and molecular biomechanics is provided and relevant scientific issues, methodological approaches, and potential applications are discussed.
Abstract:Cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. The replacement of large diameter vessels (≥6 mm), such as the aorta, has been performed successfully with synthetic non-degradable vascular grafts, while it is still a challenge to engineer small diameter vessels with long-term patency. Over the past three decades, the rapid progress in the field of vascular tissue engineering has provided some promising approaches, including in vitro, in vivo, and in situ tissue engineering of vascular grafts. This review is focused on the most recent progress and trends in vascular tissue engineering.
Abstract:Ocular biomechanics are generally applied in the diagnosis treatment of high myopia and ocular movement disorder. Progress has also achieved in the development of glaucoma and ocular trauma research fields. In this paper, the advances in the modeling of eye movement, the mechanical properties and mechanobiology of the cornea and sclera, glaucoma biomechanics, and the mechanism of ocular trauma are reviewed.
Abstract:Although it is important to explore potential treatment of chronic obstructive airway diseases such as asthma, as well as to discover interesting biophysical phenomena in airway system, the research on biomechanical models of airway narrowing remains a both appealing and challenging field. However, there have been significant advances during recent years, with number of emerging new models and new approaches. This review article briefly introduces some of the most recent work published in the literature. In particular, those work that emphasize on asthmatic airway narrowing behavior, and strive to explain the corresponding in vivo airway behaviors. More specifically, models that discuss not only individual airway behaviors, but also interactions due to coupling between airways and their surrounding structures are focused on. This includes interesting phenomena involving the airways and the smooth muscle that surrounds the airways, as well as the emergent spatial ventilation patterns due to dynamic airway interaction.
Abstract:Bone growth, development and maintenance, which become multidisciplinary with the rapid development of biomechanics, tissue engineering and cell biology, are intimately linked with bone remodeling. Mechanobiology has become an important method to study bone remodeling. This article summarizes related skeletal mechanobiology researches in recent years to provide theoretical basis for bone remodeling, bone tissue engineering and clinical treatments of related orthopedic disorders.
Abstract:Motion analysis is the science that quantitatively investigates human body movement. Motion analysis can help simplify human body motion when performing complex tasks, facilitate standardization of the movement and improve the efficiency of carrying out the tasks. Currently, motion analysis has been widely applied in many fields of the daily life, including medicine, sports science, rehabilitation, entertainment, etc. In clinics, motion analysis had been used in not only the diagnoses of various neuromusculoskeletal diseases and patient-specific treatment planning, but also in the evaluation of outcomes of medical devices such as orthopedic implants and rehabilitation equipment. Therefore, the development of accurate and user-friendly motion analysis techniques will greatly advance the orthopedic surgeries, rehabilitation applications, precision medicine and medical engineering research. This article briefly introduces the history of motion analysis science, typical motion capture technologies, and then discusses the clinical applications of contemporary motion analysis methods as well as its future development.