目的 探讨在相同跑速下穿着不同落差跑鞋对下肢关节负荷的影响,为跑鞋设计和跑步者选购跑鞋提供依 据。 方法 18 名男性跑步者分别穿着零落差和 10 mm 落差跑鞋以(4. 0±0. 2) m/ s 速度完成测试,使用红外高速运 动捕捉系统和三维测力台同步采集下肢运动学参数和地面反作用力( ground reaction force, GRF)。 使用统计参数 映射法(statistical parameter mapping,SPM)分析跑鞋跟掌落差对支撑期垂直 GRF、下肢关节三维力矩的影响。 结 果 跑鞋跟掌落差对垂直 GRF 无影响,对下肢关节部分力矩-时间序列影响显著。 与穿着零落差跑鞋相比,穿着 10 mm 落差跑鞋在 27% ~ 38% 支撑期髋关节内旋力矩增加,在 47% ~ 75% 支撑期膝关节伸展力矩增加,在 16% ~ 33% 、25% ~ 30% 、12% ~ 25% 支撑期踝关节跖屈力矩、外翻力矩和外旋力矩降低。 结论 与穿着零落差跑鞋相比,穿 着 10 mm 落差跑鞋在支撑前期髋关节负荷增加,踝关节负荷降低,在支撑中期膝关节负荷增加。 建议跑步者结合 自身特点及跑鞋跟掌落差对下肢关节负荷特征的影响,选择适合自己的跑鞋。
Objective To explore the effects of wearing running shoes with different heel-to-toe drops on lower limb joint loading at the same running speed, so as to provide references for the design of running shoes and for runners to buy running shoes. Methods A total of 18 male runners completed the running test by wearing shoes with 0 mm and 10 mm heel-to-toe drops at the speed of (4. 0±0. 2) m / s, the kinematic parameters and ground reaction force (GRF) of lower limbs were collected synchronously by using infrared high-speed motion capture system and three-dimensional (3D) force plates. Statistical parameter mapping (SPM) was used to analyze the effects from heel-to-toe drop of running shoes on GRF as well as 3D moments of lower limb joints during stance phase. Results The heel-to-toe drop of running shoes had no effects on vertical GRF, but had significant effects on moment-time series of lower limb joints. Compared with wearing 0 mm heel-to-toe drop running shoes, wearing running shoes with 10 mm heel-to-toe drop increased the hip internal rotation moments in 27% -38% of stance phase and the knee extension moments in 47% -75% of stance phase, meanwhile decreased the plantar flexion moments, valgus moments and external rotation moments of ankle joints in 16% -33% , 25% -30% and 12% - 25% of the stance phase, respectively. Conclusions Compared with wearing 0 mm heel-to-toe drop running shoes, wearing running shoes with 10 mm heel-to-toe drop increases the hip joint loading, decreases the ankle joint loading in early stance phase, and increases the knee joint loading in middle stance phase. It is suggested that runners choose running shoes according to their own characteristics and the effects of heel-to-toe drop of running shoes on lower limb joint loading.