基于AnyBody仿真的太极拳不同步型特征研究
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北京师范大学体育与运动学院 北京

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Research on the Characteristics of Different Step Type of Tai Chi Based on AnyBody Simulation
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    摘要:

    目的:对比太极拳初学者和专业者不同步型的下肢运动学、动力学、肌肉用力参数差异,旨在为太极拳科学化及制定运动处方提供依据。方法:用BTS红外捕捉系统、Kistler三维测力台采集太极拳动作数据,以AnyBody 7.0建模仿真系统计算运动学、动力学、肌力参数。结果:(1)专业组独立步膝关节屈伸角度、膝关节X轴受力非常明显大于实验组(P<0.01)。(2)弓步、虚步、开立步、马步、仆步、独立步中,专业组下肢肌力均为大于实验组。马步半膜肌、半腱肌、股二头肌肌力大于实验组(P<0.05),仆步臀大肌、臀中肌、臀小肌、阔筋膜张肌、股外侧肌、股二头肌肌力大于实验组(P<0.05),独立步股外侧肌、股内侧肌、股二头肌、胫骨前肌肌力大于实验组(P<0.05)。结论:太极拳练习时,膝关节为主要发力关节,专业者下肢用力明显大于初学者。独立步对髋关节影响较大,弓步、仆步对膝关节影响较大。不同水平太极拳练习者对下肢肌肉的激活程度不同,初学者练习时要针对不同动作影响刺激的肌肉,有针对性的区分练习,进而促进下肢肌肉协调发展。

    Abstract:

    Objective: The parameters of lower limb kinematics, dynamics and muscle strength between beginners and professionals were compared to provide basis for scientific Tai Chi and formulation exercise prescription. Methods: The data of Tai Chi were collected by BTS infrared motion capture test system, Kistler three-dimensional forceplate, the kinematics, dynamics and muscle force parameters were calculated with AnyBody 7.0 simulation system. Results: (1) The knee flexion and extension angle, X-axis force of independent step of the professional group were significantly greater than experimental group (P < 0.01). (2) The lower limb muscle strength of the professional group was greater than experimental group in the bow step, virtual step, parallel step, horse step, servant step and independent step. The muscle strength of hemimembranous muscle, semitendinosus muscle and biceps femoris of horse step were greater than experimental group (P < 0.05). The muscle strength of gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fascia lata, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris of servant step were greater than experimental group (P < 0.05). The muscle strength of vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, biceps femoris and tibialis anterior of independent step were greater than experimental group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In Tai Chi practice, the knee joint is the main force producing joint, and the lower limb strength of professionals is significantly greater than that of beginners. Independent step have great influence on hip joint, while lunge and footstep have great influence on knee joint. Different levels of Tai Chi exercisers have different degrees of activation of lower limb muscles. Beginners should focus on the muscles affected by different movements, so as to promote the coordinated development of lower limb muscles and improve the ability of posture control in Tai Chi practice.

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  • 收稿日期:2020-12-03
  • 最后修改日期:2021-02-08
  • 录用日期:2021-02-18
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