目的 分析比较全脚掌着地的“亚洲蹲”和前脚掌着地的“西方蹲”动作中下肢关节运动学和肌肉激活程度的差异。方法 以11名健康成年人为研究对象，采用三维运动捕捉系统、测力台和表面肌电同步采集两种下蹲动作的运动学、动力学和肌肉激活信息，并通过OpenSim模拟仿真动态优化计算下肢肌力。分析指标包括：膝关节弯曲角度峰值时刻所对应的骨盆、髋、膝及踝关节的关节角度；下蹲动作的下降期和上升期内的臀大肌、股二头肌长头、股直肌、腓肠肌外侧头、比目鱼肌及胫骨前肌的肌力峰值和峰值时刻。结果 在膝关节弯曲角度峰值时刻，亚洲蹲骨盆前倾，而西方蹲骨盆后倾；此外，与亚洲蹲相比，西方蹲具有显著较小的髋关节屈角、较大的膝关节屈角、较大的髋关节外展角和内旋角（P = 0.033；0.030；0.000；0.014）。在自重深蹲的下降期和上升期中，西方蹲的比目鱼肌力峰值均显著大于亚洲蹲（P = 0.007；0.010），西方蹲的胫骨前肌力均显著小于亚洲蹲（P = 0.045；0.035），峰值时刻未见统计学差异。 结论 在约束踝关节自由度的亚洲蹲中，胫骨前肌激活和近侧端关节前屈可能有利于稳定；而在脚跟抬起的西方蹲中，比目鱼肌激活显著，但两者近端肌肉激活模式相同。这为临床深蹲康复方案制定或深蹲训练方式的选择提供了理论指导。
Objective: This study aimed to compare the differences in the lower-limb joint kinematics and muscle activation between Asian squat (AS) and Western squat (WS). Methods: Eleven healthy adults were recruited and they completed the biomechanical test of AS and WS. A 3D motion analysis system, two force plates and electromyography were used to measure the kinematics, kinetics and muscle activation of the subjects during the two posture, and to calculate the muscle force by OpenSim. Biomechanical outcomes include: the joint angle of the pelvis, hip, knee and ankle at the time of peak knee flexion angle; The peak force and peak time of the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, lateral gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior muscle. Results: The AS showed pelvis forward flexion, while the WS showed pelvis backward extension at the time of the peak knee flexion angle. Compared with the AS, a significant smaller hip flexion, larger knee flexion, larger hip abduction and hip rotation angles were found in the WS at the time of the peak knee flexion angle (P = 0.033; 0.030; 0.000; 0.014). Compared with the AS, a significant greater peak force of soleus was found in the WS during the descent and ascent phases of squat (P = 0.007; 0.010). Additionally, a smaller peak force of anterior tibia was found in WS than AS during the descent and ascent phases of squat (P = 0.045; 0.035). No significant differences were found in other muscle peak force and the time of peak force between the AS and WS (P ＞ 0.05). Conclusions: The combined tibialis anterior activation and proximal joint flexion may be beneficial to stabilization during the AS. The soleus muscle activation was significant in the WS with heel lift. The muscle activation pattern of proximal joint was similar between the AS and WS. This study provided theoretical guidance for the design of clinical squat rehabilitation programs or the selection of squat training.