目的 测量人体多部位松质骨矿质密度、轴向弹性模量，建立矿质密度与轴向弹性模量相关关系的本构方程，为国人有限元材料属性赋值提供依据。方法 采取10例成人新鲜尸体作为样本源，选取胫骨近端、大转子、股骨颈、肱骨头和椎体5个部位的松质骨，加工成直径约6 mm、长约30或40 mm的准试样。测量尺寸并计算体积，CT扫描试样骨矿质密度。对松质骨试样进行力学性能测试，分析不同部位松质骨弹性模量。对矿质密度与轴向弹性模量关系进行线性与幂次回归分析。结果 测试成功的试样来自5个部位，共169枚，其中胫骨近端52枚，大转子31枚，股骨颈15枚，肱骨头17枚，椎体54枚；5个部位松质骨矿质密度、轴向弹性模量均有所差异，线性相关性均较好（0.850>r2>0.785），3个部位（胫骨近端、大转子、椎体）的幂次相关性较好（0.871>r2>0.825），2个部位（肱骨头、股骨颈）的幂次相关性较弱(0.671>r2>0.643)。结论 各个部位骨矿质密度与轴向弹性模量的线性和幂次回归的相关性均较高，且同部位两种回归的r2值之间无明显差异；可应用于体外检测患者的骨骼质量，准确分辨骨质变化的部位，配合有限元建模能够预测骨折的风险。
Objective To measure the cancellous bone mineral density and axial elastic modulus from multiple anatomic sites, then build the constitutive equation between them, so as to provide specific data for finite element modeling of Chinese people. Methods Ten fresh adult cadavers were taken as sample sources. In every fresh cadaver, 5 different anatomic sites were selected: proximal tibia, greater trochanter, femoral neck, humeral head and lumbar vertebra. The raw samples were processed into standard specimens, which were approximately 6 mm in diameter and 30 mm or 40 mm in length. Both the size and volume for the cancellous bone specimens were measured, and their mineral densities were obtained with computed tomography. The mechanical properties of such specimens were tested with biomechanical testing machine for analyzing the elastic modulus of the cancellous bone at different anatomic sites. The linear and power regression between mineral density and axial elastic modulus were analyzed on SPSS 18.0. Results A total of 169 cancellous bone specimens which were availably tested were collected, including 52 proximal tibia, 31 greater trochanter, 15 femoral neck, 17 humeral head and 54 lumbar vertebrae. The analysis on measurement results showed that the mineral density and axial elastic modulus in cancellous bones from 5 anatomic sites were different, and had a solid linear relationship (0.850>r2>0.785), with 3 sites (proximal tibia, greater trochanter, lumbar vertebra) showing a solid power correlation (0.871>r2>0.825), and the other 2 sites (humeral head and femoral neck) showing relatively weak power correlation (0.671>r2>0.643). Conclusions There are solid linear and power relationship between mineral density and axial elastic modulus, while no significant difference is proved between the r2 values of the two regressions in this research. This discovery can be applied to detect patients’ bone quality in vitro and identify the precise position of bone loss, and further to predict fracture risk with the help of finite element modeling.